The Labor Market and the Concept of the Labor Force Cubs.1888932-2946.ws

Labor is all forms of human efforts put into or utilized in production. In other words, it refers to man’s mental and physical exertions generated in the process of production. Market on the other hand is a point or place or any means of communication whereby the sellers and buyers can communicate with one another, to exchange goods and services at prices determined by the market forces. Labor market is defined therefore as a market which buyers and sellers of labor are in close contact during which the wages and other conditions of services are determined and agreed upon. Labor is the factor of production which is usually bought and sold in the market.

Labor force

Labor force is the total number of persons available to supply the labor for the production of economic goods and services. In other words, it is the total number of people of working age in a country who are able and willing by law to work. It is the active or working population and it comprises all persons who have jobs and those who are seeking for jobs in the labor market. They are normally found between the age bracket of 18 to 65 years. Working population varies from one country to another. To be a member of the labor force, one must be of working age (18-65 years), be able-bodied, ie, not handicapped either. Mentally or physically, and must be willing to work. Persons that are not members of the labor force include:

• Children of school age (0-17 years)
• Elderly (above 65 years)
• The handicapped (either physically or mental)
• Persons even though they are able-bodied but are unwilling to work.

Demand for Labor

Demand for labor is the total number of workers employers are willing and ready to employ or hire at a particular time and at a given wage rate. The demand for labor is a derived demand, because labor is not required for its own sake but for what it can help produce. Factors affecting the demand of labor are:

1. The size of market: The size of the market for goods and services produced determines the demand for labor. The larger the market, ie, the greater the production of goods and services, the higher the demand for labor to produce the required goods and services.
2. Number of industries: The higher the number of industries that produces the needed goods and services, the higher the demand for labor
3. Wage rate of price of labor: The demand for labor by employers depends on the price at which labor is offered for sale (by workers). If labor is willing to take a low wage rate, the demand for labor will be high.
4. Availability of other factors of production: If other factors of production such as land and capital are available in large quantity to produce the required goods and services, there will be a corresponding high demand for labor.
5. Efficiency of labor: If the efficiency of labor is high, there would be high propensity for employers to engage more labor and vice versa.
6. Demand for goods and services: The demand for goods and services in a country can stimulate an increase in the demand for labor.
7. Nature of Industries: The nature o industries- whether it is capital-intensive or labor-intensive will determine the demand for labor. The labor-intensive industries will lead to high demand for labor.
8. State of employment: The state of employment determines the demand for labor. If the economy has reached full employment, there will be little or no demand for labor but if it is under-employment, there will be need to demand for more labour.

Supply of Labor

Supply of labor is the total number of people of working age offered for employment at a particular time and at a given wage rate. In other words, supply of labor can be referred to as the services of labor available in the labor market. Factors affecting the supply of Labor or size of Labor force are as follows:

1. Size of population of a country: The larger the population, the greater the number of labour to be supplied.
2. Official school leaving age: If the school leaving age is low, the proportion of labour force will be high.
3. Retirement age: The age of exit in public employment will determine the labor force. The older the age, the more the supply of labor and vice versa.
4. Pursuit of higher education: Many people in their pursuit of higher education, go beyond the official entry age into the labor force.
5. Age structure of the population: The structure of a country’s population is a significant determinant of the size of the labor force. The lower the dependent people, the higher the supply of labor force will increase in a country with a greater number of its people between the ages of 18 and 65 years.
6. Role of women in the society: In some societies, women are usually prevented from engaging in gainful employment because of religious belief, social and cultural factors and this affects the size of labor force.
7. Number of working hours and working days: The number of working hours per day and the number of working days in a week of year also helps to determine the supply of labor.
8. The number of disabled: When the number of disabled persons in high especially within the working population, the supply for labor will be low.
9. The number of people unwilling to work: There are certain number of able-bodied people who are also between the age bracket of 18 and 65 years but are unwilling to work. If their population is high, it will affect the size of supply of labor.
10. Migration: The rate of migration can also affect the size of labor force. If the rate at which the working population leaves a country is higher than rate at which people come in, it will lead to reduction in the supply of labor.
11. Trade union activities: The activities of trade union may also affect the supply of labor. For example, when a long period of training is imposed on a certain trade, this may discourage people from engaging in such trade or profession leading to a reduction in supply of labor.
12. Government Policies: Certain government policies can affect the supply of labor. E.g, specific laws are made to exclude children and women from working in ministries. This can reduce the supply of labor to that are or field.

In summary, If a city have an average of 100 child births in a week and 30 surgical cases in 2 months, how do you think the demand and supply would be if 50 gynecologists and 50 surgeons are sent to this city? Supply and demand of Labor are both very essential in our daily life.

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Take the Perplexity Out of Online Adjunct Faculty Employment employment force

It is time for academics to take the perplexity out of online adjunct faculty employment because it is clear that the budgetary funds necessary to pay full time teaching salaries is being reduced as the economy continues to stumble without pause. Eventually, practically every first year and second year college and university course will be offered in the form of an online class within an online college degree program, and the teacher wishing to continue earning a living will want to learn how to take advantage of the tremendous changes taking place on the traditional post-secondary campus.

However, before there can be any expectation of success for a prospective online adjunct instructor there needs to be an examination of the accepted academic career model taught in graduate school and how it is currently being transformed into an entirely new approach to teaching at the post-secondary level of public education. The fact of the matter is that the administrators responsible for managing the budget of a college or university must confront the economic reality that continuing to pay tenure-track and tenured academics their current salaries and benefits is not supportable given the decline in available monies from the usual sources. Instead, the traditional academic faculty positions will be replaced with online adjunct positions filled by technically adept and entrepreneurially inclined educators willing to accept the changes in the economic landscape and adjust their expectations of academic employment.

The changes to academic employment forced by the technical ability of delivering post-secondary instruction to millions of college and university students are confusing to many established teachers and new graduates with freshly minted doctorates and master degrees, but this confusion can be cleared up easily and quickly by learning how to think about post-secondary instruction from the perspective of the nimble freelance academic with a firm grasp of how to generate multiple online adjunct income streams instead of the state academic employee expecting to stay at one state college, university, community college or technical school for decades and retire with a lifelong pension.

Every day the traditional adjunct instructor drives to a traditional college or university campus and teaches in a physical college classroom for pennies. Then, if the traditional adjunct is lucky enough to live in a heavily-populated urban area that can actually support multiple traditional post-secondary academic institutions, he or she drives an aging vehicle to yet another campus and teaches college students in yet another physical college classroom for yet more pennies. This is an extremely demoralizing set of circumstances to say the least, and there isn’t any relief in sight since college and university administrators are quite pleased with being able to hire individuals with graduate degrees, a Ph.D. or master’s degree, for practically nothing. Sooner or later, college adjuncts working in a physical college environment will have to realize that the only way for them to actually earn a living from the intellectual effort required to teach university and college students is to acquire an online teaching schedule full of online college courses. It is time for traditional college and university adjuncts to stop the academic grind with online adjunct positions.

For-profit colleges that offer new and returning college students a chance to enroll in online college degree programs resulting in a library science degree, an online project management degree or an online special education degree have successfully demonstrated that distance education technology not only works well but is quite popular with individuals confident about their personal computer skills, which is the vast majority of people today returning to college.

An online adjunct instructor with superior technical skills can apply for adjunct online teaching opportunities constantly because the entire faculty application process for online degree programs is online. Once the online faculty position application documents have been gathered and put into digital form a college teacher can apply to ten or twenty accredited online college degree programs every day. Of course, this activity takes time and effort, but it is well worth the investment since sooner or later the invitations to teach online will start arriving and the online teaching schedule will start filling up.

Eventually, it will be possible for an aggressive online college instructor to acquire enough adjunct online teaching opportunities to teach online full time. At that point it will be possible for the online teacher to gain complete control of the online teaching schedule in the sense that it will be possible to ditch the online college courses that do not pay all that well for ones that pay more money in the form of multiple online adjunct income streams.

As more traditional college, four-year universities and community colleges put online degree programs into place in an attempt to accommodate the educational needs of the large numbers of new and returning college students attempting to earn a college degree or university degree in order to improve their chances at a better career upon graduation, the more qualified online adjunct instructors will be needed to teach the online college courses within the online university degree programs. For these reason it is important to stop the academic grind with online adjunct positions.

Every educator with a graduate degree, a doctorate or master degree, can teach online for a variety of online college degree programs with just a little effort. All that is really needed is some practice navigating the websites of colleges and four-year universities that offer their enrolled students a chance to earn an academic degree by attending and completing online college courses. The most important step to becoming an online adjunct instructor is to learn how to use a personal computer to locate and navigate online bachelor degree programs and online master degree programs offered by post-secondary academic institutions.

The aggressive online college teacher can easily coordinate an online teaching schedule with enough online courses in it to generate a real living from a laptop. After all, it is possible to teach for four or five online degree programs at one time since all of the academic work is located on the Internet. It will not be easy to acquire multiple online college courses to teach online, but with the right amount of focus it is possible to build multiple online adjunct income streams that continue all year long.

Granted, the benefits of online teaching are hard to believe since the usual conditions for adjunct college instructors are so difficult that it is practically impossible to earn a living during the twelve months of the calendar year. On the other hand online college degree programs often continue during the summer months. This means it is possible for an online adjunct to continue earning several checks for online bachelor degree programs without waiting for college and university classes to resume at the beginning of the traditional academic year.

The recent graduate with an academic credential in hand that permits teaching at the post-secondary level of the academy is probably in possession of large amounts of debt obligation, and this graduate would do himself or herself a huge favor by teaching for three or four online bachelor degree programs or online master degree programs while seeking full time academic employment at a traditional college or university. The sad reality is that the need for ready income cannot wait for a search committee at a community college to make up its mind about twenty or thirty candidates. That ready income can be earned by an intellectual with a doctorate or master degree and at least a little ability with a personal computer. The first task that needs to be mastered by the prospective online adjunct college professor is the actual search for online adjunct positions available at the thousands of community colleges, four-year universities and for-profit colleges.

It will take some time for any new online adjunct instructor to learn how to quickly locate and enter the faculty application section of a school’s website, but after making at least one hundred applications the skills needed to engage twenty or more colleges and universities each day. This may seem like a lot of effort, but it is important to keep in mind that the current teacher layoffs are pushing ever more academically qualified academics into unemployment and underemployment, plus the sharp need for additional income also acts as a motivation for educators seeking to teach online for a living. Undoubtedly, the college educator today must assess the competition being created by slashed faculty budgets at all levels of the education professional.

Still, an energetic instructor wanting to teach online can still build a teaching portfolio populated with multiple instances of online adjunct faculty employment that can be coordinated from practically any geographic location on the globe. For this reason alone, almost unlimited mobility, the academic frustrated with the fractured salary and hiring environment on the traditional college and university campus should make every effort to transition out of the physical classroom and into an online teaching schedule populate with a variety of online bachelor degree programs.

Take the Perplexity Out of Online Adjunct Faculty Employment